Robert W. Malone, MD, MS

Physician and biochemist
Dr. Malone is the inventor of mRNA vaccines (and DNA vaccines). He also discovered lipid mediated and naked RNA transfection technologies.  This is important because it is his role in the invention of these technologies that gave him the initial credibility to speak on the subject of mRNA vaccines.  When main stream media and the government decided to censor him and deny his role in these discoveries, they have a purpose.  That purpose was to stop him from being a legitimate expert. Those newspaper articles are still front and center on google.  Because the government can not handle the truth and must censor and delegitimize dissenting voices.

It all started when he was at the Salk Institute in 1987 and 1988. There, he pioneered in-vitro RNA transfection and also in-vivo RNA transfection (in frog embryos, as well as mice).

This resulted in his seminal paper: Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection RW Malone, PL Felgner, IM Verma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 86 (16), 6077-6081

His filed patent and disclosures from the Salk included in-vivo RNA transfection, mRNA as a drug,  mRNA production, transient gene therapy and also methods for mRNA stabilization. These are available for review and can be found in the link below this statement.

 When he left the Salk Institute, he moved his research over to Vical in 1988.  He brought over mRNA, constructs, reagents that were developed at the Salk institute by Dr. Malone. The first in-vivo mammalian mRNA experiments were designed by Dr. Malone in January, 1989: this included dosing amounts for the in-vivo experiments. As he had brought his constructs, plasmids, reagents from the Salk Institute, he was easily able to ramp up his research program at Vical - where he was the only employee actually working on this technology at the time.  The first in-vivo mouse experiments were performed in February, 1989 when mRNA and DNA was sent to Dr. Jon Wolff via Fedex. Dr.Wolff and his technicians at the University of Wisconsin injected mice and rats.

The initial patent disclosures for RNA and DNA vaccination were written by Dr. Malone in 1988-1989. Dr. Malone was also an inventor of DNA vaccines in 1988 and 1989.  Dr. Malone wrote the patent disclosures (documents linked below). Dr. Rhodes and Dr. Malone designed the initial mRNA vaccine experiments, which were carried out by Dr. Gary Rhodes - in consultation with Dr. Malone.


This body of work resulted in nine patents and numerous publications, yielding about 9000 citations for this work.

The paper that showed that first in-vivo RNA transfection data:

Cationic liposome-mediated RNA transfection, R W Malone, P L Felgner, and I M Verma PNAS August 1, 1989 86 (16) 6077-6081;

The  paper was the first showing data for DNA and RNA transfection side by side for in-vivo (the first paper for in-vivo DNA):

Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo. Wolff JA, Malone RW, et al. Science. 1990;247(4949 Pt 1):1465-8. Cited in 4,750 articles, is the result of that work.

In 1989, research was performed that gave rise to the groundbreaking patents on mRNA vaccination, all with a priority date of March 21, 1989. This is the same priority date as the Salk Patent application, showing that the two institutions were working together.  These patents are the first published research on mRNA vaccination.  The titles and links to the patents are listed in the documents below.   These patents have proof of principle experiments on mRNA vaccines - that clearly document that the invention worked and that these are the first experiments showing this.

Induction of a protective immune response in a mammal by injecting a DNA (or RNA) sequence, Patent US5589466A, Priority date 3/21/1989

Vical told Robert that they would license the Salk Technology (see Vical meeting minutes in the linked document page).  Instead, they hired Robert’s thesis advisor from the Salk and soon after, the Salk dropped the patent and Vical never pursued a license from the Salk.  Due to an employee contract with Vical, this stopped Robert from working in the field commercially for a decade. Vical claimed all the Salk research happened at Vical and sent a cease and desist letter.

Dr. Malone carried on his research into mRNA and DNA vaccination during the 1990s, culminating in a mucosal patent that was issued in 2000 and had a priority date of 1996. He also helped revolutionize the field of cationic liposomes for the use in RNA and DNA vaccinations.  This work was so far ahead of its time, that only now is the world turning to mucosal mRNA vaccination as a method of immunization.  Unfortunately, the toxicity issues from the nano lipid particles that Dr. Malone observed in his research during the 1990s were never resolved. Furthermore, the addition of pseudouridine to the mRNA, which creates a synthetic mRNA has added even more toxicity and adverse events. These issues were not resolved prior to to or during the clinical trials.  The government regulators have made little effort to investigate these issues.

For a listing of some of his work, see the publications on the links at the end of this page.

Scientifically trained at UC Davis, UC San Diego, and at the Salk Institute Molecular Biology and Virology laboratories, Dr. Malone received his medical training at Northwestern University (MD) and Harvard University Medical School (Clinical Research Post Graduate) , and in Pathology at UC Davis, He has almost 100 peer-reviewed publications, and has been an invited speaker at about 50 conferences.


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